Pneumology


Asthma

asthma; Chronic of airlines is obstructive and inflammatory disease. Depending on bronchial hyperresponsiveness, especially in the morning at midnight or wheezing / wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and coughing fits are observed. These attacks are usually combined with varying degrees of airway narrowing, which often resolves spontaneously or with treatment. The disease varies from person to person.

Asthma can be controlled with proper treatment. Best clinical indicator of asthma is under control, there is a small number of exacerbations or attacks.

The development of asthma, personal (genetics, obesity, gender) and environmental factors (allergens, infections, occupational sensitizers, smoking, indoor and outdoor air pollution) interacting causes the emergence of the disease. Genetic factors are the main risk factors for the occurrence of asthma. Among the factors that lead to asthma exacerbations are generally the environmental. Genes among themselves, and are also believed to increase the tendency to asthma individuals interacting with environmental factors.

Personal factors:

Genetics:

atopy

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness

sex

Obesity

Environmental Factors:

allergens

Indoor: Domestic mites, pets (cats,

dog), cockroaches and mold

Outdoor: Pollen and mold

Infections: Especially viral agents

Occupational sensitizers

Smoking: both active and passive smoking

Air pollution: air pollution, indoor and outdoor

diet

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SMOKING AND ASTHMA

Smoking and / or smoke exposure, aggravation of the deterioration of lung function in asthma leads to an increase in asthma symptoms and weight. Furthermore, it causes the tobacco smoke inhaled or systemic steroids to treat asthma and control of the effects of the reduction difficult. Both in the womb, as well as exposure to tobacco smoke during infancy, early childhood, including asthma-like symptoms, leads to a series of losses. Nevertheless, the baby's mother that smoking adversely affects lung development and infants of smoking mothers, wheezing in the first year of life has been reported that 4-fold increased probability of passing the

History of asthma (questioning the patient's symptoms) is very important. In bouts in the history of shortness of breath, wheezing hırıltılı- can be diagnosed by the presence of symptoms such as cough and chest pressure sensation. Supports the diagnosis of diagnostic tests is positive.

• Patient attack if there is a period of physical examination findings that up. Respiratory system does not exclude the diagnosis of a normal examination ..

• Pulmonary function tests of the degree of airway narrowing, the recycling of airflow limitation and helps determine the variability. A normal pulmonary function test does not exclude the diagnosis of asthma.

• Pulmonary function normally, but the airway in patients with symptoms consistent with asthma The sensitivity of the measurement can help confirm the diagnosis.

• Evaluation of the allergen, the individual may help to distinguish the risk factors that cause asthma symptoms.

• Asthma weight change over time and response to treatment other than weight is important

• It is classified according to the level of asthma control dominant trend today.

• clinical diagnosis of asthma control as follows:

- Eye symptoms (shortness of breath, wheezing or coughing, respiratory) absence (week 2 or

less)

- Restrictions on activities, including lack of exercise

- The absence of the night due to asthma symptoms or awakening

- The absence of drug use needs Savior (2 weeks or less)

- To have normal or near normal pulmonary function

• Lack Attack

ASTHMA TREATMENT

The drugs used to treat asthma control agents and relaxing (reliever) is divided into drugs. Controlling drugs, which keeps most of the time under the control of asthma by virtue of their anti-inflammatory effects, daily and long-used drugs. The narrowing of the bronchi returns relaxing drugs acting quickly, which resolves the symptoms and medications that are used when necessary.

• asthma treatment, by inhalation, can be administered orally or parenterally. One major advantage of inhalation therapy, the risk of reduced systemic side effects, the administration of the drug directly to the airways in these regions is that the access to higher local concentrations.

• Inhaled corticosteroids are the most effective control agents are drugs available today.

• Rapid-acting inhaled beta2-agonists for relief of bronchoconstriction and drugs of choice for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

• Increased use of reliever medication every day and needs to be of use is a warning that uncontrolled asthma and treatment