Internal Medicine

What is Diabetes?

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a sufficient amount to produce the hormone insulin or can not be used effectively in the case of insulin, the hormone produced by the developing and the lifetime of a disease called pancreatic glands in your body. Causes a rise in blood sugar.

Hunger whether a person with diabetes Blood Glucose (FBG) measurement or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) performed detected. FBG measurement of 100-125 mg / dL hidden sugar (pre-diabetes) signal. FPG measurement result of 126 mg / dl or more indicates that the presence of diabetes.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes do not produce enough insulin or the person is very low. Therefore persons of insulin necessary for life, are required to give to the body by injection of insulin. 5-10% of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but people can not use effectively the insulin produced in the target tissue. Type 2 diabetes, Type 1 diabetes is more common compared. 90% of people with diabetes Type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes How to tell?

In people with diabetes often following symptoms are observed;

Excessive thirst and drinking water
Out frequent urine
Weight loss
Excessive appetite and eating lots
blurred vision
Skin infections
Healing wounds

How to treat diabetes?

The goal of diabetes treatment is to provide the blood sugar level. Of the diabetes education as a priority for this is important. People diagnosed with diabetes should be checked by a doctor at least once every six months. In addition, people with diabetes should learn at the same time using home blood glucose monitoring devices to track changes in blood sugar levels daily. If overweight patients with type II diabetes diet, diabetes can be controlled with sports and weight loss.


High blood pressure is seen nearly two times more common in patients with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Both high blood pressure can lead to serious consequences if found both in people without any symptoms of type 2 diabetes and treated. Have people in both diseases; heart disease, kidney disease and increased risk of stroke. Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed due to remain asymptomatic for many years after the first appearance of the disease. During this time, arises findings concerning the heart and kidney disease in most patients with high blood pressure.


Kidney disease is one of the most important complications of diabetes. Risk of developing kidney disease, although believed to be higher in people with diabetes type1, studies the risk of kidney damage, type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients showed that close to each other. Type 2 diabetes will develop in approximately 40% of patients with kidney disease. Type 2 diabetes diabetic renal disease (ESRD) is not possible to heal nedenidir.esrd'n's leading and only treatment is dialysis or kidney transplantation is not satisfactory that both initiatives also face the consequences.

Progression of Kidney Disease

Normal functioning kidneys, prevents the passage of urine protein. Protein in the urine, for example presence of albumin, a warning sign for renal disease.

Microalbuminuria is shaped to have a small amount of protein in the urine tanımlanabilir.idrarl log albumin excretion amount is less than 5 micrograms per minute under normal conditions. In patients with microalbuminuria in urine albumin excretion rate is between 20-200 micrograms minutes. Microalbuminuria, due to an early and reliable indicator of diabetic patients with renal and cardiovascular disease, "artery to the pop-up window" can be described as. Investigation of microalbuminuria, which açısındanrisk heart and kidney disease and may help to identify patients who will benefit from early intervention. In about 25% of patients with microalbuminuria, proteinuria occur within 5 years.

Proteinuria is defined as the presence of large amounts of protein in the urine. Diabetic renal disease, especially if left untreated, may transition from microalbuminuria and proteinuria. Type 2 diabetes develops when proteinuria in a patient, further deterioration of renal function and renal function is often inevitable now reduced by about 10% every year. Proteüniril the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease in seven years (ESRD) develops and these patients need to be on dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

Prevention of diabetic kidney disease

Type 2 is not the first time to do a urine analysis in patients diagnosed with diabetes and albumin determined if the result of this analysis, the search for microalbuminuria; In case clean out these tests is recommended to be repeated every year.

Antihypertensive therapy in hypertensive patients with diabetes, it is effective in reducing microalbuminuria there are data showing that slows the development of diabetic kidney disease.